Inverter is used for producing un-interrupted power supply to the electronic devices connected. It gives a constant AC voltage when the main power supply is not available. Thus, it provides an alternating power supply for continued use of electrical appliances and serves as an excellent power backup solution. Before choosing an inverter for home or commercial purpose, knowing how an inverter works, can help in selecting the right capacity and size that suit the exact needs of an individual.
To grasp how an inverter functions, the following situations should be considered:
- When AC main supply is available
- When AC main supply is not available
When AC main power supply is available, the main sensor will sense it and the power supply will go to battery charging and Relay section. The main sensor will activate the relay, which will pass AC main supply directly to the output socket. The load is then driven by line voltage, which is directed to batter charging section. Here, line voltage is being converted to DC voltage that is usually 12V or 24V DC and regulated to charge the battery. There are also special circuits to sense voltage, which will stop charging, when the batter is full. Some inverters will also have trickle charging circuit that keeps the battery continually charged.
When AC main power supply is not available, oscillator circuit integrated inside the inverter will produce 50Hz MOS drive signal. The driver section will amplify this MOS drive signal and sends it to the output section. Transistors / MOSFETS connected to the inverter transformer’s primary winding are used for switching the operation. When MOS drive signal is received by these switching devices, they start to switch between OFF and ON states at the rate of 50Hz. Based on the winding ratio, this action will result 110V AC or 220V AC at inverter or secondary transformer which is made available at the inverter’s output socket by the changeover relay.
Inverter consist multiple circuits to sense and tackle different situations automatically, which may occur when an inverter is standby or running condition. This automation will look after situations such as over heat, overload, over charge, low battery and more. According to the situation, the battery is switched by the automation section to switch OFF or charging mode. There is also LCD screen in advanced inverters to indicate the automation condition visually.
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